United States presidential inauguration

United States presidential inauguration

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the most recent United States presidential inauguration, see Inauguration of Barack Obama.

Inauguration Day 2009 on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol.

President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush lead the inaugural parade down Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House, 2005

The inauguration of the President of the United States occurs upon the commencement of a new term of a President of the United States.

The only inauguration element mandated by the United States Constitutionis that the President make an oath or affirmation before that person can “enter on the Execution” of the office of the presidency. However, over the years, various traditions have arisen that have expanded the inauguration from a simple oath-taking ceremony to a day-long event, including parades, speeches, and balls.

This day, now known as Inauguration Day, was on March 4 from 1793 until 1933. Since then, Inauguration Day has occurred on January 20 (the 1933 ratification of the Twentieth Amendment changed the start date of the term).

From the presidency of Andrew Jackson through Jimmy Carter, the primary Inauguration Day ceremony took place on the Capitol’s EastPortico.[1] Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the Capitol’s West Front. The inaugurations of William Howard Taft in 1909 and Reagan in 1985 were moved indoors at the Capitol due to cold weather. The War of 1812 and World War II caused two inaugurations to be held at other locations in Washington, D.C..

Since Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth swore in President John Adams, no Chief Justice has missed an Inauguration Day. When Inauguration Day has fallen on a Sunday, the Chief Justice has administered the oath to the President either on inauguration day itself or on the preceding Saturday privately and the following Monday publicly.

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Inaugural ceremonies

The inauguration for the first U.S. president, George Washington, was held on April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City[2] where he was sworn in by Robert Livingston, the Chancellor of the State of New York.[3] In 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the first to be sworn in as president in Washington, D.C., which only officially became the federal capital that year.[4] Inauguration day was originally on March 4, four months after election day, but this was changed to noon on January 20 by the Twentieth Amendment in 1933.[4]

The inaugural celebrations usually last ten days, from five days before the inauguration to five days after. However, in 1973, the celebrations marking Richard Nixon’s second inauguration were marred by the passing of former presidentLyndon B. Johnson two days after the inauguration. The celebrations came to an end as Washington began preparations for the state funeral for Johnson. Because of the construction work on the center steps of the East Front, Johnson’s casket was taken up the Senate wing steps of the Capitol when taken into the rotunda to lie in state.[5] When it was brought out, it came out through the House wing steps of the Capitol.[5]

Inauguration Day is a Federal holiday observed only by federal employees who work in the District of Columbia;Montgomery and Prince George’s Counties in Maryland; Arlington and Fairfax Counties in Virginia, and the cities ofAlexandria and Fairfax in Virginia, and who are regularly scheduled to perform non-overtime work on Inauguration Day. There is no in-lieu-of holiday for employees and students who are not regularly scheduled to work or attend school on Inauguration Day. The primary reason for the holiday is to relieve traffic congestion that occurs during this major event.

Organizers

Inauguration platform under construction for Woodrow Wilson‘s first inauguration in 1913

Since 1901, all inaugural ceremonies at the United States Capitol have been organized by the Congressional Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies.[6]

The U.S. military have participated in Inauguration Day ceremonies sinceGeorge Washington, because the president is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Since the first inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953, that participation has been coordinated by the Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (now called the Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee).

The Presidential Inaugural Committee is the legal entity which raises and distributes funds for events other than the ceremony such as the balls and parade.[7]

Locations

All but one of the inaugural ceremonies were held at the building housing the United States CongressWashington gave his first address at Federal Hall in New York City and his second address in Congress Hall in PhiladelphiaAdams also gave his in Congress Hall in Philadelphia. Jefferson gave both of his addresses at the United States Capitol inWashington, D.C. and all addresses since then have been given there, except for Franklin D. Roosevelt‘s fourth address, which he gave at the White House. Depending on the weather, the ceremonial swearing-in is held outside or inside of the Capitol building.

Dates

Inaugural ceremonies have been held on five different calendar dates in the year: April 30, March 4, March 5, January 20, January 21. Washington gave his first address on April 30, 1789 and his second one on March 4, 1793, which was the commencement date for presidential terms. This March 4 date was changed to January 20 by the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Sunday exceptions

From the years 1793 to 1933, the addresses were given on March 4 with only four exceptions. Because March 4 fell on a Sunday in each of their respective inaugural years, MonroeTaylorHayes and Wilson each gave an address on Monday, March 5. Since 1937, addresses have been given on January 20 with only two exceptions (other than following a premature end to the Presidential term). PresidentsEisenhower and Reagan each gave an address on Monday, January 21. The next inauguration day that will fall on a Sunday is January 20, 2013.

Attendees

In addition to the public, the attendees at the ceremony generally include Members of Congress, Supreme Court justices, high-ranking military officers, former presidents, living Medal of Honor recipients, and other dignitaries.

The outgoing president attends the inauguration, barring those cases where succession was due to his death. There have been four exceptions:

  • John Adams did not attend Jefferson’s inauguration.
  • John Quincy Adams did not attend Jackson’s inauguration.
  • Andrew Johnson did not attend Grant’s inauguration.
  • Woodrow Wilson did not attend Harding’s inauguration (but did ride to the Capitol with him).

Gerald Ford had no inauguration, but rather a swearing-in ceremony. Richard Nixon left Washington, D.C. before his resignation took effect and did not attend the ceremony.

Ceremony elements

Oaths of office

Main article: Oath of office of the President of the United States

Clinton takes the oath of office during his1993 presidential inauguration on January 20, 1993.



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Since 1937, the vice president-elect takes the oath of office at the same ceremony as the president-elect; before then, the vice presidential oath was administered in the Senate. The Vice-President-elect takes the oath first. Unlike the president, the United States Constitution does not specify an oath of office for the Vice President. Several variants of the oath have been used since 1789; the current form, which is also recited bySenatorsRepresentatives and other government officers, has been used since 1884:

I, AB, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.[8]

Immediately after the vice-presidential oath, the United States Marine Band will perform four ruffles and flourishes, followed by Hail, Columbia.

At noon, the new presidential term begins. At about that time, the president-elect takes the oath of office, traditionally administered by the Chief Justice of the United States, using the form mandated in Article II, Section 1 of the United States Constitution:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

According to Washington Irving’s biography of George Washington, in the first inauguration President Washington added the words “so help me God” after accepting the oath. This is confirmed by Donald R. Kennon, Chief Historian, United States Capitol Historical Society.[9] However, the only contemporaneous source that fully reproduced Washington’s oath completely lacks the religious codicil.[10] The first newspaper report that actually described the exact words used in an oath of office, Chester Arthur’s in 1881,[11] repeated the “query-response” method where the words, “so help me God” were a personal prayer, not a part of the constitutional oath. The time of adoption of the current procedure, where both the Chief Justice and the President speak the oath, is unknown.

There is no requirement that any book, or in particular a book of sacred text, be used to administer the oath, and none is mentioned in the Constitution. With the use of the Bible being customary for oaths, at least in the 18th and 19th centuries, a Bible was generally used. Several Presidents were sworn in on the George Washington Inaugural Bible.[citation needed] On some occasions, the particular passage to which it was opened has been recorded, as below. Only one president, Franklin Pierce, is definitely known to have affirmed rather than sworn; there are conflicting reports concerning Herbert Hoover, but the use of a Bible is recorded and suggests that he swore in the usual fashion. Barack Obama used the Lincoln Bible for his swearing in.[12]


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The presidential oath has been administered by 15 Chief Justices, one Associate Justice, and two New York state judges.

Immediately after the presidential oath, the United States Marine Band will perform four ruffles and flourishes, followed by Hail to the Chief, while simultaneously, a 21-gun salute is fired using artillery pieces from the Presidential Guns Salute Battery, 3d United States Infantry Regiment “The Old Guard” located in Taft Park, north of the Capitol. The actual gun salute begins with the first ruffle and flourish, and ‘run long’ (i.e. the salute concludes after Hail to the Chief has ended).

Inaugural address

The most recent inaugural address, in full, made by Barack Obama after beingsworn in as the forty-fourth President of the United States on January 20, 2009. (Duration: 18 minutes, 58 seconds)

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Newly sworn-in presidents usually give a speech referred to as an inaugural address. Until William McKinley‘s first inaugural address in 1897, the president elect traditionally gave the address before taking the oath; McKinley requested the change so that he could reiterate the words of the oath at the close of his address. Four presidents gave no address:TylerFillmoreAndrew Johnson, and Arthur. In each of these cases, the incoming President was succeeding a President who had died in office, and was not elected as president in the next election. Gerald Ford addressed the nation via broadcast after taking the oath, but he characterized his speech as “Not an inaugural address, not a fireside chat, not a campaign speech—just a little straight talk among friends.”[13] Fifty-four addresses have been given by thirty-seven presidents. George Washington‘s second address was the shortest (135 words), and William Henry Harrison delivered the longest (8,495 words).

Religious elements

Since 1937, the ceremony has incorporated two or more prayers. Musical works and poetry readings have been included on occasion.[14]

Further information: Prayers at United States presidential inaugurations

Other elements

See also: United States presidential inaugural balls

Congressional luncheon

Since 1953, the president and vice president have been guests of honor at a luncheon held by the United States Congress immediately following the inaugural ceremony. Other than at State of the Union addresses, the Red Mass, andstate funerals, it is the only time the president, vice president, and both houses of Congress congregate in the same location.

Parade

The Inaugural Parade onPennsylvania Avenue passes the Presidential reviewing stand in front of the White House in January 2005.

Since Thomas Jefferson‘s second inaugural on March 4, 1805, it has become tradition for the president to parade down Pennsylvania Avenuefrom the Capitol to the White House. The only president not to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue was Ronald Reagan in his second inauguration in 1985, due to freezing cold temperatures made dangerous by high winds. Reagan paraded down Pennsylvania Avenue during his first inauguration, in 1981, amidst the celebrations that broke out across the country because of news just minutes into his term that the 52 American hostages held in Iran for the previous 444 days had been released. In 1977, Jimmy Carter walked from the Capitol to the White House, although for security reasons, subsequent presidents have only walked a part of the way.

Prayer service

A tradition of a national prayer service, usually the day after the inauguration, dates back to George Washington and since Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the prayer service has been held at the Washington National Cathedral.[15]

Security

The security for the inaugural celebrations is a complex matter, involving not only the Secret Service, but other Federal law enforcement agencies, Immigration and Customs Enforcement-Office of Federal Protective Service (ICE-FPS), all five branches of the Armed Forces, the Capitol Police, and the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia (MPDC). Federal law enforcement agencies also sometimes request assistance from various other state and local law enforcement agencies throughout the United States. One issue is the ability of protesters to engage in free speech while providing protection for the government officials at risk for assassination or bodily harm.

Presidential Medals

Beginning with George Washington, there has been a traditional association with Inauguration festivities and the production of a presidential medal. With the District of Columbia attracting thousands of attendees for inauguration, presidential medals were an inexpensive souvenir for the tourists to remember the occasion. However, the once-simple trinket turned into an official presidential election memento. In 1901, the first Inauguration Committee on Medals and Badges was established as part of the official Inauguration Committee for the re-election of President McKinley. The Committee saw official medals as a way to raise funding for the festivities. Gold medals were to be produced as gifts for the President, Vice President, and Committee Chair; Silver medals were to be created and distributed among Inauguration Committee members; and bronze medals would be for sale for public consumption. McKinley’s medal was simple with his portrait on one side and writing on the other side.[16]

Unlike his predecessor, when Theodore Roosevelt took his oath of office in 1905, he found the previous presidential medal unacceptable. As an art lover and admirer of the ancient Greek high-relief coins, Roosevelt wanted more than a simple medal—he wanted a work of art. To achieve this goal, the President hired Augustus Saint-Gaudens, a famous American sculptor, to design and create his inauguration medal. Saint-Gaudens’s obsession of perfection resulted in a forestalled release and the medals were distributed after the actual inauguration. However, President Roosevelt was very pleased with the result.

Saint-Gaudens’ practice of creating a portrait sculpture of the newly elected president is still used today in presidential medal creation. After sitting for the sculptor, the clay sketch is turned into a life mask and plaster model. Finishing touches are added and an epoxy cast is created, which is used to produce the die cuts. The die cuts are then used to strike the President’s portrait on each medal. The most recent Presidential Inauguration Medal released was for President Obama in 2009.[17]

The Smithsonian Institute and The George Washington University hold the two most complete collections of presidential medals in the United States.

List of inaugural ceremonies

This is a list of the 56 planned inaugural ceremonies. For a list of the 72 instances when the oath of office has been taken, see Oath of office of the President of the United States.

Date↓ President↓ Location↓ Administered by[18]↓ Document Sworn On↓ Inaugural Addresses↓
April 30, 1789 George Washington Balcony ofFederal Hall
New York,New York
Robert Livingston
Chancellor of New York
Washington Bible opened at random to Genesis 49:13 due to haste.[19] George Washington’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1793 George Washington SenateChamber
Congress Hall
Philadelphia,Pennsylvania
William Cushing
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Unknown[20] George Washington’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1797 John Adams HouseChamber
Congress Hall
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Oliver Ellsworth Unknown[20] John Adams’ Inaugural Address
March 4, 1801 Thomas Jefferson Senate Chamber,U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[20] Thomas Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1805 Thomas Jefferson Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[20] Thomas Jefferson’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1809 James Madison HouseChamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[20] James Madison’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1813 James Madison House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[20] James Madison’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1817 James Monroe In front of Old Brick Capitol
(1st & A Sts., N.E.)
now site of the Supreme Court Building
John Marshall Unknown[20] James Monroe’s First Inaugural Address
March 5, 1821 James Monroe House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[20] James Monroe’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1825 John Q. Adams House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall A book of US law[21] John Quincy Adams’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1829 Andrew Jackson East Portico, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[20] Andrew Jackson’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1833 Andrew Jackson House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[20] Andrew Jackson’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1837 Martin Van Buren East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Bible open to Proverbs 3:17[20][22] Martin Van Buren’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1841 William H. Harrison East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown[20] William Henry Harrison’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1845 James K. Polk East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown James K. Polk’s Inaugural Address
March 5, 1849 Zachary Taylor East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown Zachary Taylor’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1853 Franklin Pierce East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Law book[20][23] Franklin Pierce’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1857 James Buchanan East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown[20] James Buchanan’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1861 Abraham Lincoln East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Lincoln Bible opened at random[20] Abraham Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1865 Abraham Lincoln East Portico, U.S. Capitol Salmon P. Chase Bible open to Matthew 7:1Matthew 18:7Revelation 16:7[24] Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1869 Ulysses S. Grant East Portico, U.S. Capitol Salmon P. Chase Unknown[20] Ulysses S. Grant’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1873 Ulysses S. Grant East Portico, U.S. Capitol Salmon P. Chase Bible open to Isaiah 11:1-3[25] Ulysses S. Grant’s Second Inaugural Address
March 5, 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes East Portico, U.S. Capitol (publicly) Morrison R. Waite Bible open to Psalms 118:11-13[25] Rutherford B. Hayes’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1881 James A. Garfield East Portico, U.S. Capitol Morrison R. Waite Bible open to Proverbs 21:1[25][26] James A. Garfield’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1885 Grover Cleveland East Portico, U.S. Capitol Morrison R. Waite Bible opened at random by Chief Justice to Psalms 112:4-10[27] Grover Cleveland’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1889 Benjamin Harrison East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Bible open to Psalms 121:1-6[25] Benjamin Harrison’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1893 Grover Cleveland East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Bible open to Psalms 91:12-16 Grover Cleveland’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1897 William McKinley In front of Original Senate Wing
U.S. Capitol
Melville W. Fuller Bible open to 2 Chronicles 1:10[28] William McKinley’s First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1901 William McKinley East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Bible open to Proverbs 16[25] William McKinley’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1905 Theodore Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Bible open to James 1:22-23[25] Theodore Roosevelt’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1909 William H. Taft Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Bible open to 1 Kings 3:9-11[25] William Howard Taft’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1913 Woodrow Wilson East Portico, U.S. Capitol Edward D. White Bible open to Psalm 119[25] Woodrow Wilsons First Inaugural Address
March 5, 1917 Woodrow Wilson East Portico, U.S. Capitol (publicly) Edward D. White Bible open to Psalm 46[29] Woodrow Wilson’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1921 Warren G. Harding East Portico, U.S. Capitol Edward D. White Washington Bible open to Micah 6:8[25] Warren Harding’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1925 Calvin Coolidge East Portico, U.S. Capitol William H. Taft Bible open to John 1[20] Calvin Coolidge’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1929 Herbert C. Hoover East Portico, U.S. Capitol William H. Taft Bible open to Proverbs 29:18[25] Herbert Hoover’s Inaugural Address
March 4, 1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Charles E. Hughes Bible open to1 Corinthians 13:13[30] Franklin Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address
January 20, 1937 Franklin D. Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Charles E. Hughes Bible open to I Corinthians 13 Franklin Roosevelt’s Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 1941 Franklin D. Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Charles E. Hughes Bible open to I Corinthians 13 Franklin Roosevelt’s Third Inaugural Address
January 20, 1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt South Portico, White House Harlan F. Stone Bible open to I Corinthians 13 Franklin Roosevelt’s Fourth Inaugural Address
January 20, 1949 Harry S. Truman East Portico, U.S. Capitol
First inauguration to be televised[31]
Frederick M. Vinson Bible open to Exodus 20:3-17 and Matthew 5:3-11[32] Harry S. Truman’s Inaugural Address
January 20, 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower East Portico, U.S. Capitol Frederick M. Vinson Washington Bible open to Psalm 127:1 and a West Point Bible open to II Chronicles 7:14[33] Dwight Eisenhower’s First Inaugural Address
January 21, 1957 Dwight D. Eisenhower East Portico, U.S. Capitol (publicly) Earl Warren West Point Bible open to Psalm 33:12[34][35] Dwight Eisenhower’s Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 1961 John F. Kennedy East Portico, U.S. Capitol Earl Warren Closed family Bible[36][37] John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address
January 20, 1965 Lyndon B. Johnson East Portico, U.S. Capitol Earl Warren Closed family Bible[20][38] Lyndon Johnson’s Inaugural Address
January 20, 1969 Richard M. Nixon East Portico, U.S. Capitol Earl Warren Bible open to Isaiah 2:4[30] Richard Nixon’s First Inaugural Address
January 20, 1973 Richard M. Nixon East Portico, U.S. Capitol Warren E. Burger Bible open to Isaiah 2:4[39] Richard Nixon’s Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 1977 Jimmy Carter East Portico, U.S. Capitol Warren E. Burger Bible open to Micah 6:8[40][41] Jimmy Carter’s Inaugural Address
January 20, 1981 Ronald Reagan West Front, U.S. Capitol Warren E. Burger Bible open to II Chronicles 7:14[20] Ronald Reagan’s First Inaugural Address
January 21, 1985 Ronald Reagan Rotunda, U.S. Capitol (public) Warren E. Burger Bible open to II Chronicles 7:14[20] Ronald Reagan’s Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 1989 George H. W. Bush West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Washington Bible opened at random in the center and a family Bible on top opened to Matthew 5[20] George H. W. Bush’s Inaugural Address
January 20, 1993 Bill Clinton West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Bible open to Galatians 6:8[20] Bill Clinton’s First Inaugural Address
January 20, 1997 Bill Clinton West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Bible open to Isaiah 58:12[42] Bill Clinton’s Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 2001 George W. Bush West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Closed family Bible[20][43] George W. Bush’s First Inaugural Address
January 20, 2005 George W. Bush West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Open family bible; same one used in 1989 and 2001[20] George W. Bush’s Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 2009 Barack Obama[44] West Front, U.S. Capitol John G. Roberts Closed Lincoln Bible[45] Barack Obama’s Inaugural Address
Date President Location Administered by[18] Document Sworn On[20] Inaugural Addresses (Texts from Wikisource)

[edit]See also

[edit]References

  1. ^ “Presidential Inaugurations: Some Precedents and Notable Events”. Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  2. ^ “Exhibit: President George Washington’s inaugural address”. National Archives and Records Administration. 1998-08-17. Retrieved 2009-01-22. “George Washington’s first inauguration took place at Federal Hall in New York City […] George Washington’s first inaugural address, April 30, 1789”
  3. ^ “President George Washington’s first inaugural speech (1789)”. Our documents. Retrieved 2009-01-22. “Before the assembled crowd of spectators, Robert Livingston, Chancellor of the State of New York, administered the oath”
  4. a b “Inaugural history: inauguration 2001”. PBS. Retrieved 2009-01-22. “Thomas Jefferson was the first president to be sworn in as president in Washington DC, which did not officially become the US capital until 1801. […] Inauguration Day was originally set for March 4, giving electors from each state nearly four months after Election Day to cast their ballots for president. In 1933, the day of inauguration was changed by constitutional amendment from March 4 to Jan. 20 to speed the changeover of administrations.”
  5. a b Foley, Thomas (January 25, 1973). “Thousands in Washington Brave Cold to Say Goodbye to Johnson”. The Los Angeles Times: p. A1.
  6. ^ “Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies – Official Website.”.
  7. ^ “PIC records”. National Archives.
  8. ^ 5 U.S.C. § 3331
  9. ^ http://2002-2009-fpc.state.gov/40871.htm
  10. ^ Documentary History of the First Federal Congress, Vol. 15, pages 404-405
  11. ^ “The New Administration: President Arthur Formally Inaugurated” (PDF). The New York Times. 1881-09-22. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
  12. ^ “President-elect Barack Obama to be Sworn in Using Lincoln’s Bible”. Presidential Inaugural Committee. 2008-12-23.
  13. ^ “Gerald R. Ford’s Remarks on Taking the Oath of Office as President”. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
  14. ^ “Presidential Inaugurations Past and Present: A Look at the History Behind the Pomp and Circumstance”.
  15. ^ Knowlton, Brian (2009-01-21). “On His First Full Day, Obama Tackles Sobering Challenges”The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  16. ^ MacNeil, Neil. The President’s medal, 1789-1977. New York : Published in association with the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, by C. N. Potter, 1977.
  17. ^ Levine, H. Joseph. Collectors Guide to Presidential Medals and Memorabilia. Danbury, Conn. : Johnson & Jensen, 1981.
  18. a b Individual named is the U.S. Chief Justice, unless otherwise indicated
  19. ^ Bowen, Clarence W. The History of the Centennial Celebration of the Inauguration of George Washington, N.Y. 1892, p. 72
  20. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y “Bibles and Scripture Passages Used by Presidents in Taking the Oath of Office”. Architect of the Capitol.
  21. ^ “Presidential Inaugurations Past and Present: A Look at the History Behind the Pomp and Circumstance”. US Department of State. 2005-01-13.
  22. ^ Files of the Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress
  23. ^ Affirmed instead of swearing the oath.
  24. ^ Wright, John. Historic Bibles in America, N.Y. 1905, p. 46
  25. a b c d e f g h i j List compiled by Clerk of the Supreme Court, 1939
  26. ^ One source (The Chicago Daily Tribune, Sept. 23, 1881, p. 5) says that Garfield and Arthur used the same passage, but does not indicate which one.
  27. ^ Opened at random by Chief Justice
  28. ^ Bible given to him by Methodist church congregation
  29. ^ Senate Document 116, 65th Congress, 1st Session, 1917
  30. a b “Obama picks Bible for inauguration, but what verse?”. CNN. 2008-12-24.
  31. ^ “Inauguration of the President: Facts & Firsts”U.S. Senate. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  32. ^ Facts on File, Jan. 16-22, 1949, p. 21.
  33. ^ New York Times, Jan. 21, 1953, p. 19
  34. ^ New York Times, Jan. 22, 1957, p. 16.
  35. ^ “Inauguration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1957”. Inaugural.senate.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  36. ^ “John F. Kennedy and Ireland – John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum”. Jfklibrary.org. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  37. ^ New York Times, Jan. 21, 1961, p. 8, col. 1.
  38. ^ Office of the Clerk of the Supreme Court via phone July 1968
  39. ^ Washington Post, Jan. 20, 1969, p. A1.
  40. ^ “Jimmy Carter Inaugural Address”. Bartelby.com. 1977-01-20.
  41. ^ Washington Post, Jan. 21, 1977, p. A17
  42. ^ Washington Post, Jan. 21, 1997, p. A14
  43. ^ Inauguration staff. George W. Bush had hoped to use the Masonic Bible that had been used both by George Washington in 1789, and by the Bush’s father, George H. W. Bush, in 1989. This historic Bible had been transported, under guard, from New York to Washington for the inauguration but, due to inclement weather, a family Bible was substituted instead.
  44. ^ Resworn in the Map Room of the White House to correct words transposed during the public ceremony. Shear, Michael (January 22, 2009). “Obama Sworn In Again, Using the Right Words”Washington Post. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
  45. ^ “Obama chooses Lincoln’s Bible for inauguration”.

Further reading

External links

Wikisource has several original texts related to: U.S. Presidency Inaugural Addresses
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: United States presidential inaugurations
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Origen e historia de los discursos presidenciales “Estado de la Nación”

 http://www.compartiendomiopinion.com/2011/01/origen-e-historia-de-los-discursos.html
El discurso conocido en Inglés como State of the Union es una obligación constitucional de los presidentes de Estados UnidosPor Bridget HunterWashington.

El presidente Obama se dirijió a los líderes del gobierno federal de Estados Unidos anoche, cumpliendo con una obligación constitucional así como siguiendo una tradición de larga data de los presidentes estadounidenses.La Constitución de Estados Unidos exige al presidente que informe al Congreso “ocasionalmente” sobre el “Estado de la Unión”. Este requisito constitucional ha evolucionado hasta llegar a ser el discurso anual del presidente sobre el Estado de la Unión, que ahora tiene varios propósitos: El discurso informa sobre la condición de Estados Unidos tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, recomienda una agenda legislativa para el año que comienza y ofrece al presidente la oportunidad de comunicar su visión para el país.

En su segundo discurso sobre el Estado de la Unión, Obama se centró principalmente en sus prioridades a nivel nacional, pero también describió las metas de su administración en lo que se refiere a política exterior. El éxito en lograr sus metas dependerá en gran parte de cuán hábilmente pueda trabajar Obama con el Congreso y cuán eficazmente pueda superar la división partidista entre republicanos y demócratas, algo de lo que el presidente está plenamente consciente. En el Congreso 112, el control de la Cámara de Representantes ha pasado al partido Republicano, aunque el partido Demócrata aún tiene la mayoría de los escaños en el Senado.

Como los hizo en 2010, el presidente instó a la unidad de los estadounidenses y al cambio en el tono de la política de Estados Unidos, a un enfoque bipartidista para gobernar, y a centrarse en servir al público en lugar de hacer avanzar las ambiciones políticas.

HISTORIA DEL DISCURSO

La tradición del discurso del Estado de la Unión data de 1790 cuando George Washington, el primer presidente de Estados Unidos pronunció su “Mensaje anual” ante el Congreso en la Ciudad de Nueva York, que entonces era la capital provisional de Estados Unidos. Su sucesor, John Adams, continuó con la tradición.

Sin embargo el tercer presidente del país, Thomas Jefferson, consideraba que tales y elaborados eventos no eran adecuados para la nueva república democrática. Preparó un mensaje por escrito en lugar de comparecer en persona. La influencia de Jefferson fue tal que durante más de un siglo después de él, los presidentes posteriores entregaban mensajes anuales por escrito al Congreso.

En las primeras décadas de la república, la mayoría de estos comunicados eran listas de las propuestas de ley que el presidente deseaba que el Congreso aprobara, reflexiones sobre el tenor de los tiempos y los problemas prácticos que surgían durante el desarrollo del joven país de Estados Unidos. Los comentarios también trataban de la situación internacional y el lugar de Estados Unidos en el mundo.

Durante la crisis que, más que ninguna otra, amenazó la propia existencia de la Unión de Estados Unidos, la Guerra Civil, Abraham Lincoln escribió el que probablemente sea el más elocuente y memorable de todos los mensajes presidenciales que se hayan enviado al Congreso.

“Al liberar a los esclavos, aseguramos la libertad de los libres — igualmente honorable en lo que otorgamos y lo que preservamos”, escribió Lincoln en 1862.

En 1913, Woodrow Wilson revivió la práctica de pronunciar el mensaje anual en persona. Esta decisión se produjo en el momento adecuado pues Estados Unidos estaba en vísperas de una revolución de los medios de comunicación de masas que pronto introduciría a los presidentes en los hogares de los estadounidenses, primero por medio de la radio, y después por la televisión.

Con la elección de Franklin Delano Roosevelt en 1932, los estadounidenses se acostumbraron a escuchar a sus presidentes en la radio así como a verlos y escucharlos en los informativos de noticias que se mostraban en los cines.

En 1945, el mensaje anual se hizo conocido formalmente como el discurso del Estado de la Unión. También se convirtió en algo habitual en la televisión, así como en la radio, al haber aumentado grandemente las ventas de aparatos de televisión en la década de 1950. Al reconocer el poder de la televisión para hacer llegar las palabras del presidente a una gran audiencia, el presidente Lyndon Johnson cambió la hora del discurso de su tradicional mediodía hasta la noche, cuando más televidentes podían verlo.

La tradición de la respuesta de la oposición comenzó en 1966 cuando dos congresistas republicanos, entre los que estaba el futuro presidente Gerald Ford, pronunciaron una respuesta republicana que fue televisada luego del discurso del Estado de la Unión pronunciado por el presidente Johnson.

Lo ultimo en política de Puerto Rico/USA

Para trabajar por la Estadidad: https://estado51prusa.com Seminarios-pnp.com https://twitter.com/EstadoPRUSA https://www.facebook.com/EstadoPRUSA/

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Para trabajar por la Estadidad: https://estado51prusa.com Seminarios-pnp.com https://twitter.com/EstadoPRUSA https://www.facebook.com/EstadoPRUSA/
Para trabajar por la Estadidad: https://estado51prusa.com Seminarios-pnp.com https://twitter.com/EstadoPRUSA https://www.facebook.com/EstadoPRUSA/